Wednesday, 26 August 2015

Tun Temenggung Jugah Anak Barieng

Tun Temenggung Jugah Anak Barieng
Tun Temenggung Jugah Anak Barieng

Tun Temenggong Jugah Anak Barieng or Tun Jugah (1903 – July 1981) was a Malaysian politician of Iban descent from the state of Sarawak. He was the first Sarawakian Minister in the Malaysian Federal Parliament. He played a fundamental role in bringing the state of Sarawak into the Federation of Malaysia in 22 July 1963. He was a member and president of the United Traditional Bumiputera Party until his death in 1981

Jugah in the words of Tun Abdul Rahman Ya’kub, former Chief Minister of Sarawak and Governor of Sarawak, ‘ was a bridge between Sarawak and Malaya.’ He was a major figure and factor in the entry of Sarawak -and the Iban- into Malaysia. Vinson H Sutlive Jr in his book ‘Tun Jugah Of Sarawak: Colonialisme and Iban Response’ revealed Jugah’s very own philosophy, ‘Give life to yourself first. Once your foundation is solid, then you can talk and act.’ (Idup ka nyawa dulu. Udah urat tegap, baru kitai ulih bejaku). Thus, he was a chief (penghulu) of renown in the Brooke Raj, a chief (sanji) under the Japanese, and Paramount Chief (Temenggung) during the British period, and Federal Minister in Malaysia.

He was a recipient of numerous honours conferred by the state and federal governments. He received Darjah Panglima Negara Bintang Sarawak (PNBS), and the Title of Datuk, From Sarawak Goverment, and the same year, Panglima Gemilang Darjah Kinabalu (PGDK) with the title Datuk from Sabah Government. The third honour for the year, 1964, were confered by The King, with the title Tan Sri, that is Darjah Yang Mulia Panglima Mangku Negara (PMN).

Tun Jugah and HRH The Duke Of Edinburgh
Tun Jugah and HRH The Duke Of Edinburgh

Left to right: Sir Malcolm McDanald, Temenggung Jugah, Temenggung Jinggut anak Atan and Temenggung Sibat Anak Buyong
Left to right: Sir Malcolm McDanald, Temenggung Jugah, Temenggung Jinggut anak Atan and Temenggung Sibat Anak Buyong




Kanang anak Langkau was born in 1945 in Julau, Sarawak. He entered military service with the with the British Army, as an Iban Tracker, attending Jungle Warfare School in Ulu Tiram in early 1962. Kanang was attached to the  42 Comando serving during the Brunei revolt and during the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation. He later served with the Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment. He was absorbed into the Sarawak Rangers which eventually became part of the Malaysian Rangers when Malaysia was proclaimed on 16 September 1963.

In the Malaysian Military History he is one of the very few survivors ever conferred the “Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa” whilst still alive and a “Pingat Gagah Berani” the only person has ever received two gallantry awards in the history of the Malaysian Armed Forces.
The series of his Story narrated as below

In an operation in the Korbu Forest Reserve at Fort Legap on the 1st June 1979 whilst on a mission tracking the enemy, Sgt Kanang’s group came across a temporary enemy resting camp, he and hid 8th Battalion Royal Rangers immediatedly launched an attack on enemy that far outnumbered their group. Two of the Rangers went down, mortally wounded. Five of the enemy were killed, enemy equipment too were captured. He was conferred the highest gallantry award, the “Pingat Gagah Berani” by his Majesty the King.

In another operation,  8th Battalion Royal Rangers was tasked to conduct the follow up  on an enemy ambush on a section of soldiers from the 20th Battalion Royal Malay Regiment at Ladang Kinding, Sungei Siput, Perak. One of the follow up groups was commanded by him. Sergeant Kanang who was a skilled tracker managed to track down the enemy. He made contact with the enemy, several of his soldiers were wounded. Even after experiencing casualties, his morale and the indomitable fighting spirit of the Ranger Corps within him remained high.

Sarjan(Sargeant) Kanang Anak Langkau was leading the Unit Combat Intelligence Platoon of 8th Battalion Royal Rangers(now known as 8th Paras). This platoon was tasked to track down and destroy a group of communist terrorists who were present in the operational area. Who awhile ago shot dead one soldier in the Tanah Hitam area of Perak on the 8th February 1980.

This dogged pursuit and tracking of the enemy took 11 days ! he managed to doggedly track and identify the enemy’s exact route of escape. On the evening of 19th February 1980 at around 1500 hours in the afternoon, after conducting a recconnaisance with great caution and care, his platoon mananged to estimate the location of the enemy, which was located not very far from their location.
Actually they were inside the location of the enemy, as they were at the foot of the hill. They only realised that they were inside the enemy’s location when they found a communictions cord from the enemy sentry’s location. This cord was running from the sentry’s location to the enemy’s main force. This cord is normally attached to a small bush or empty cans which make noise when pulled. This way the main force can be alerted by the sentry when an enemy approaches.
At that moment Sergeant Kanang was approximately 8 meters from the enemy sentry’s location. Realising that, he launched the assault towards the right by firing towards the right of the enemy along with his platoon. After lauching the attack to the right, it suddenly struck everyone that the enemy’s main force was on the left, below the slope of the hill. Without losing his senses, he switched the direction of fire to the left, at the same time changing the direction of the assault to the left.

They ploughed into the enemy, a large force of the enemy managed to escape. The platoon and Kanang on that day managed to bag five Communist Terrorists on that day. Even with that success, they were saddened by the loss of one of their group who was killed and one more seriously wounded.Whilst trying to rescue his wounded friends, Sergeant Kanang himself was repeatedly shot, he took three rounds from the enemy into his body. The will to live and fight another day was strong, he recuperated and was back on active duty.
Kanang anak Langkau following the highest fighting traditions of the Ranger Corps was conferred the “Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa” for valour in decimating the enemy on the 3rd June 1981 by his Majesty the King.


Kanang retired after 21 years of service as a First Warrant Officer. He was the Temenggong (paramount chief) of the Iban in Sri Aman,his place of residence. He was awarded the Officer of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of Sarawak (PBS) (Malay: Pegawai Bintang Sarawak) in 1987.

On 15 April 2009, he made headlines after rescuing a baby orangutan from captivity with his friend, Tay Choon Yong. The baby orangutan was being handed to Semenggoh Wildlife Centre.

On 24 September 2011, he was conferred the Commander of the Order of the Star of Hornbill Sarawak (PGBK) (Panglima Gemilang Bintang Kenyalang), with the title of Datuk by the Abang Muhammad Salahuddin, the Head of State’s 90th Birthday.

In 2011, Kanang supervised Operation Mai Pulai. This operation involved the locating and exhumation of the remains of 21 Iban Trackers and Sarawak Rangers who were killed during the Second Malayan Emergency. Their remains were exhumed from multiple location on the Malay Peninsula and returned to Sarawak where they were ceremonially reburied in July 2011.


On 3 January 2013, he collapsed while watching television at home in Sungai Apong, Sri Aman after complaining of chest pains. Immediately rushed to the Sarawak General Hospital, he was pronounced dead at the age of 68.

According to the Minister of Defence, Datuk Seri Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, he will be given a national burial. His coffin, draped in the Jalur Gemilang (Malaysia Flag) and the colours of the Malaysian Armed Forces, was first brought to the 1st Infantry Division base located at Bukavu Camp in Penrissen for the family members and friends to perform prayers and miring ceremony (offering ceremony), before being brought to Kuching Civic Centre for the public to pay their last respects. He was buried at the Heroes’ Grave in Jalan Taman Budaya, after the funeral prayers at St.Thomas Cathedral in Kuching.
Military honours and awards
  • Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa.gif Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa (SP) (Supreme Gallantry Award)
  • Star of the Commander of Valour.gif Panglima Gagah Berani (PGB) (Star of the Commander of Valour)
  • Malaysia General Service Medal 1971.png Pingat Perkhidmatan Am (PPA) (Federation General Service Medal)
  • MYS Federation Loyal Service Medal.png Pingat Perkhidmatan Setia (Federation Loyal Service Medal)
  • Pingat Jasa Malaysia ribbon.png Pingat Jasa Malaysia (Malaysia Service Medal)
  • General Service Medal 1918 BAR.svg General Service Medal (1918) (United Kingdom) with “Brunei” clasp (for the participation in Brunei Revolt)
  • General Service Medal 1962 BAR.svg General Service Medal (1962) (United Kingdom) with “Borneo” clasp (for the participation in Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation)
State honours and awards
  • Panglima Gemilang Bintang Kenyalang (PGBK) (Order of the Star of Hornbill - Knight Commander) (1988).jpg Panglima Gemilang Bintang Kenyalang (PGBK) (Commander of the Star of the Hornbill of Sarawak) (2011)
  • Orde van de Ster van Sarawak.jpg Pegawai Bintang Sarawak (PBS) (Commander Most Exalted Order of the Star of Sarawak) (1987)
A Malay language novel used in secondary schools in Malaysia called Kanang, Cerita Seorang Pahlawan (“Kanang, The Heroes Story”), written by Mazlan Nordin, is a story about Kanang anak Langkau.

wira yang tidak didendang AWANG ANAK RAWENG


Awang anak Raweng, an Iban Scout from Sarawak in Borneo, won the George Cross for gallantry as recorded in the London Gazette on 20 November 1951.[1] the only Sarawakian bestowed with the highest British gallantry award.King George bestowed the 83-year-old veteran from Nanga Skrang, Sri Aman with the George Cross on Nov 20, 1951 in recognition of his bravery in fighting the communists all by himself after he and four other British army personnel were ambushed in Kluang, Johor on May 27, 1951.

He was attached to 10 Platoon, ‘D’ Company, 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment in Malaya when their jungle patrol was attacked by 50 communist terrorists in Johor, Malaya. Two members of the platoon, the leading scout and the section commander, were killed while Awang was wounded in the thigh. Despite his injury he pulled Private G. Hughes to cover. Awang returned fire, repulsing every attempt by the bandits to advance, despite suffering a severe wound to his right arm. As the bandits surrounded the injured pair, Awang clasped a grenade in his left hand and dared the bandits to attack him. He held off the communists for forty minutes, forcing them to withdraw and saved Private Hughes’s life.

His citation concluded “So resolute was his demeanour that the bandits, who had maintained their attacks for some forty minutes, and who were now threatened by the other sections, withdrew. The coolness, fortitude and offensive spirit displayed by Awang anak Rawang were of the highest order. Despite being twice severely wounded he showed the utmost courage and resolution to continue the fight and protect the injured soldier.” The insurgents were forced to retreat. Hughes was saved, although the other solider died from his wounds.

Ironically, while Awang’s gallantry had been celebrated worldwide, little was known about the Iban hero locally until recently, probably due to lost war records.

Awang, still attends the reunion of the Worchestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regiment every two years, has met Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Charles and other British leaders. Thus, I personally proud and grateful that the British government still remembers him until today.

The George Cross (GC)

The George Cross was instituted by Royal Warrant on the 24 September 1940.

King George VI had been greatly moved by the fortitude and courage displayed by many civilians and by those engaged in bomb and mine disposal duties during the Blitz, and wanted these outstanding acts of bravery to be suitably recognised. Several awards already existed for which civilians were eligible and which could also be given to servicemen and women for acts of great heroism performed in circumstances other than battle. These awards included the Empire Gallantry Medal, the Albert Medals for Saving Life on Land and at Sea and the Edward Medals for Mines and Industry, but none matched the distinction of the Victoria Cross. The King, with his advisors, decided to create a new decoration which would be equivalent in status with the VC.

The Empire Gallantry Medal was abolished and surviving holders, together with those who had been awarded it posthumously since the outbreak of war, had their medals exchanged for the George Cross. Awards of the Albert and Edwards Medals continued, but by the early 1970's it was acknowledged that there was little public appreciation of their importance. No further awards were made, and in 1971 it was announced that surviving holders of these medals would have their awards translated to the George Cross.

The George Cross was designed by Percy Metcalfe, CVO, RDI. and is made by the Royal Mint.
A total of 397 men and women plus 1 country (Malta) and 1 organisation (Royal Ulster Constabulary) have been award the George Cross.

There was no provision for the payment of any annuity contained in the original Warrant. However, from 4 February 1965 living holders of the GC were granted a tax-free annuity of 100. The figure remained at 100 until 15 August 1995 when it was raised to 1300.

Worcestershire Regiment men who were awarded the GC (George Cross)
The rank show in the table below is that which was held at the time the Order was awarded.

Name : Awang Anak Rawang
Rank : Iban Scout
London Gazette (date) : 20/11/1951

Awang Anak Rawang was an Iban Scout attached to 10 Platoon, 'D' Company, 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment in Malaya. While patrolling in the jungle, 10 Platoon was ambushed by around 50 Communist bandits. Two men were killed and Awang and Private Hughes were wounded. Awang had been shot through the thigh, but managed drag Private Hughes into cover. He then defended Hughes and himself as the bandits moved in to finish them off. Eventually Awang was shot again, shattering his right arm. He then took a grenade in his left hand, held it up and dared the bandits to come and try to kill them. At this the bandits withdrew. Awang, despite his severe wounds, had held off their attacks for 40 minutes, and saved Hughes' life. For this he was awarded the George Cross, the civilian version of the V.C.

His full citation in The London Gazette reads:

AWANG anak RAWANG. Iban Tracker, Johore, Federation of Malaya.

During operations against the bandits in Malaya a section of a platoon of the Worcestersbire Regiment was ambushed by about 50 of the enemy. The leading scout was killed instantly and the Section Commander fatally wounded. Awang anak Rawang was hit through the thigh bone and at the same time a soldier, moving behind him, was hit below the knee, the bullet completely shattering the bone. Awang anak Rawang. although wounded and lying exposed under heavy rifle and automatic fire, collected his own weapons and that of the soldier and dragged him into the cover of the jungle. In view of the impending bandit attack Awaug. completely disregarding his own wound, took up a position to defend the injured man. There he remained, firing on every attempt made by the bandits to approach, and successfully drove off several attacks. Ultimately Awang was again wounded, the bullet shattering his right arm and rendering further use of his rifle or parang impossible. Despite loss of blood from his undressed wounds, be dragged himself over to the wounded soldier and took a grenade from the mans pouch. He resumed his position on guard, pulled out the pin of the grenade with his teeth and with the missile in his left band defied the bandits to approach. So resolute was his demeanour that the bandits, who had maintained their attacks for some forty minutes, and who were now threatened by the other sections, withdrew.
The coolness, fortitude and offensive spirit displayed by Awang anak Rawang were of the highest order. Despite being twice severely wounded he showed the utmost courage and resolution to continue the fight and protect the injured soldier.

Worcestershire Regimental History records the following action:

On 26th May 1951, 12 Platoon, D Company (2/Lieut. W. O. Morris, R.A.O.C. att. 1 Worc. R.) were encamped in some rubber on Ulu Paloh Estate, three miles West of Niyor. At about 1530 hours one of the platoon sentries was fired on by a party of eight terrorists. The sentry returned the fire and the terrorists withdrew in a North-Westerly direction. The Platoon Commander then took two sections in pursuit of the terrorists, but after making a wide circling movement through the jungle could find no trace of the enemy and returned to base.

The following morning (27th May) the Platoon Commander, with two sections, set out once more in search of the enemy. They moved due West into the jungle and followed a narrow track, which had jungle on the left and felled jungle on the high ground to the right. The track was used by woodcutters who were engaged in cutting the jungle further back,

Having moved about a quarter of a mile into the jungle, the leading section came under very heavy automatic fire from the front and left flank. The patrol went to ground and returned the fire. In the first few minutes Private Dykes, the leading scout, was killed. The section commander (Corporal Stanton), two more privates (Hughes and Payne), and the Iban tracker (Awang anak Rawang), were wounded. The Platoon Commander shouted several times to Corporal Stanton to withdraw his section, but he received no reply. 2/Lieut. Morris then moved back and deployed the rear section to the left; they then engaged the terrorists as best they could. 2/Lieut. Morris moved forward again to investigate the state of the leading section. During this time he fired two complete magazines from his carbine. The Platoon Commander was killed shortly afterwards, but the Platoon fought on for about forty minutes, when the terrorists withdrew.

The sound of the firing had been heard back at the Company base, and the Company Commander, with two platoons, moved out and arrived at the scene of the action about an hour later.

During the action Private Hughes fell wounded in the middle of the track, and Awang anak Rawang, the Iban tracker, although wounded himself and lying in an exposed position, dragged Private Hughes under cover of a fallen tree. From behind the tree Awang defended Hughes and continued to engage the terrorists when they tried to approach. For his gallantry Awang anak Rawang was subsequently awarded the George Cross. He was the first, and at the time of writing the only, Iban tracker to receive such an honour.

The casualties in the action were 2/Lieut. W. O. Morris, Corporal B. Stanton and Private N. Dykes killed, and the wounded were Private G. Hughes, Private N. Payne and the Iban. The enemy lost three killed, including Lap Kwang, the company commander and a terrorist leader of repute. The terrorists numbered about fifty and were later identified as 3 Platoon and 7 Platoon, 4 Company, of the 9th Regiment. The two sections of 12 Platoon had a total strength of between fifteen and twenty.

Sunday, 23 August 2015

Motorcycle history

Motorcycle history begins in the second half of the 19th century. Motorcycles are descended from the "safety bicycle," a bicycle with front and rear wheels of the same size and a pedal crank mechanism to drive the rear wheel. Despite some early landmarks in its development, motorcycles lack a rigid pedigree that can be traced back to a single idea or machine. Instead, the idea seems to have occurred to numerous engineers and inventors around Europe at around the same time.

The 1900 Werner Brothers patented motorcycle

Early steam-powered cycles

Lucius Copeland 1894

In the 1860s Pierre Michaux, a blacksmith in Paris, founded 'Michaux et Cie' ("Michaux and company"), the first company to construct bicycles with pedals called a velocipede at the time, or "Michauline".The first steam powered motorcycle, the Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede, can be traced to 1867, when Pierre's son Ernest Michaux fitted a small steam engine to one of the 'velocipedes'.

The design went to the USA when Pierre Lallement, a Michaux employee who also claimed to have developed the prototype in 1863, filed for the first bicycle patent with the US patent office in 1866.In 1868 an American, Sylvester H. Roper of Roxbury, Massachusetts developed a twin-cylinder steam velocipede, with a coal-fired boiler between the wheels. Roper's contribution to motorcycle development ended suddenly when he died demonstrating one of his machines in Cambridge, Massachusetts on June 1, 1896.

Also in 1868, a French engineer Louis-Guillaume Perreaux patented a similar steam powered single cylinder machine, the Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede, with an alcohol burner and twin belt drives, which was possibly invented independently of Roper's. Although the patent is dated 1868, nothing indicates the invention had been operable before 1871.

In 1881, Lucius Copeland of Phoenix, Arizona designed a much smaller steam boiler which could drive the large rear wheel of an American Star high-wheeler at 12 mph. In 1887 Copeland formed the Northrop Manufacturing Co. to produce the first successful 'Moto-Cycle' (actually a three-wheeler).
Experimentation and invention

Butler's Patent Velocycle

The first commercial design for a self-propelled bicycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of and built by Edward Butler in England in 1884. He exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884, two years earlier than Karl Benz invented his first automobile who is generally recognized as the inventor of the modern automobile. Butler's vehicle was also the first design to be shown at the 1885 International Inventions Exhibition in London.

The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888.[6] the Butler Petrol Cycle (first recorded use of the term) It was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5/8hp (466W) 600 cc (40 in3; 2¼×5-inch {57×127-mm})[6] flat twin four stroke engine (with magneto ignition replaced by coil and battery),[6] equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor (five years before Maybach),[6] and Ackermann steering,[7] all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air.[6] The engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever. No braking system was fitted; the vehicle was stopped by raising and lowering the rear driving wheel using a foot-operated lever; the weight of the machine was then borne by two small castor wheels. The driver was seated between the front wheels.[6] It wasn't, however, a commercial success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing.

Replica of the 1885 Daimler-Maybach Reitwagen

Another early internal combustion, petroleum fueled motorcycle was the Petroleum Reitwagen. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885.[8] This vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, and thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier. Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning.[9] The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). It was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle.
First commercial products

In the decade from the late 1880s, dozens of designs and machines emerged, particularly in Germany and England, and soon spread to America.[12] During this early period of motorcycle history, there were many manufacturers since bicycle makers were adapting their designs for the new internal combustion engine.

Diagram of 1894 Hildebrand & Wolfmüller.

In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be called a motorcycle(German: Motorrad). However, only a few hundred examples of this motorcycle were ever built. The first instance of the term "motor cycle" also appears in English the same year in materials promoting machines developed by E.J. Pennington, although Pennington's motorcycles never progress past the prototype stage.

Excelsior Motor Company, originally a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, England, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896, available for purchase by the public. The first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts.

In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine. As the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles often moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles.

At the turn of the century the first major mass-production firms were set up.

A 1913 FN (Fabrique National), Belgium, 4cylinders and shaft drive

In 1901 English quadricycle and bicycle maker Royal Enfield introduced its first motorcycle, with a 239 cc engine mounted in the front and driving the rear wheel through a belt. In 1898, English bicycle maker Triumph decided to extend its focus to include motorcycles, and by 1902, the company had produced its first motorcycle—a bicycle fitted with a Belgian-built engine. A year later, it was the largest motorcycle manufacturer with an annual production of over 500 units. Other British firms were Norton and Birmingham Small Arms Company who began motorbike production in 1902 and 1910, respectively.[17]

In 1901, the Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Company, which had been founded by two former bicycle racers, designed the so-called "diamond framed" Indian Single, whose engine was built by the Aurora Firm in Illinois per Indian's specifications. The Single was made available in the deep blue. Indian's production was up to over 500 bikes by 1902, and would rise to 32,000, its best ever, in 1913.[18][19] producing over 20,000 bikes per year.[20] The American company Harley-Davidson started producing motorcycles in 1903.

During this period, experimentation and innovation were driven by the popular new sport of motorcycle racing, with its powerful incentive to produce tough, fast, reliable machines. These enhancements quickly found their way to the public’s machines.[12]

Chief August Vollmer of the Berkeley, California Police Department is credited with organizing the first official police motorcycle patrol in the United States in 1911.[21] By 1914, motorcycles were no longer just bicycles with engines; they had their own technologies, although many still maintained bicycle elements, like the seats and suspension.
First World War

Triumph Motorcycles Model H, was mass-produced for the war effort and notable for its reliability.

During the First World War, motorbike production was greatly ramped up for the war effort to supply effective communications with front line troops. Messengers on horses were replaced with despatch riders on motorcycles carrying messages, performing reconnaissance personnel and acting as a military police. American company Harley-Davidson was devoting over 50% of its factory output toward military contract by the end of the war. The British company Triumph Motorcycles sold more than 30,000 of its Triumph Type H model to allied forces during the war. With the rear wheel driven by a belt, the Model H was fitted with a 499 cc air-cooled four-stroke single-cylinder engine. It was also the first Triumph not to be fitted with pedals, so was a true motorcycle.[22]

The Model H in particular, is regarded by many as having been the first "modern motorcycle".[23] Introduced in 1915 it had a 550cc side-valve four-stroke engine with a three-speed gearbox and belt transmission. It was so popular with its users that it was nicknamed the "Trusty Triumph."[24]

A pre-war Polish Sokół 1000

An historic V-twin American motorcycle — a 1941 Crocker

By 1920, Harley-Davidson was the largest manufacturer,[25] with their motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries.[26][27] By the late 1920s or early 1930s, DKW in Germany took over as the largest manufacturer.[28][29][30] BMW motorcycles came on the scene in 1923 with a shaft drive and an opposed-twin or "boxer" engine enclosed with the transmission in a single aluminum housing.

By 1931, Indian and Harley-Davidson were the only two American manufacturers producing commercial motorcycles.[31] This two-company rivalry in the United States remained until 1953, when the Indian Motorcycle factory in Springfield, Massachusetts closed and Royal Enfield took over the Indian name.[32]

There were over 80 different makes of motorcycle available in Britain in the 1930s, from the familiar marques like Norton, Triumph and AJS to the obscure, with names like New Gerrard, NUT, SOS, Chell and Whitwood,[33] about twice as many motorcycle makes competing in the world market during the early 21st century.

In 1937, Joe Petrali set a new land speed record of 136.183 mph (219.165 km/h) on a modified Harley-Davidson 61 cubic inch (1,000 cc) overhead valve-driven motorcycle.[31] The same day, Petrali also broke the speed record for 45 cubic inch (737 cc) engine motorcycles.

In Europe, production demands, driven by the buildup to World War II, included motorcycles for military use, and BSA supplied 126,000 BSA M20 motorcycles to the British armed forces, starting in 1937 and continuing until 1950. Royal Enfield also produced motorcycles for the military, including a 125 cc lightweight motorcycle that could be dropped (in a parachute-fitted tube cage) from an aircraft.
After World War II

An original Vespa with sidecar

After the World War II, some American veterans found a replacement for the camaraderie, excitement, danger and speed of life at war in motorcycles. Grouped into loosely organized clubs, motorcycle riders in the US created a new social institution—the motorcyclists or "bikers"—which was later skewed by the "outlaw" persona Marlon Brando portrayed in the 1954 film The Wild One.[34]

In Europe, on the other hand, post-war motorcycle producers were more concerned with designing practical, economical transportation than the social aspects, or "biker" image.[34] Italian designer Piaggio introduced the Vespa in 1946, which experienced immediate and widespread popularity. Imports from the UK, Italy and Germany, thus found a niche in US markets that American bikes did not fill.

The BSA Group purchased Triumph Motorcycles in 1951 to become the largest producer of motorcycles in the world claiming "one in four".[citation needed] The German NSU was the largest manufacturer from 1955[citation needed] until 1959 when Honda became the largest manufacturer.[35][36]

A 1962 Triumph Bonneville represents the popularity of British motorcycles at that time

British manufacturers Triumph, BSA, and Norton retained a dominant position in some markets until the rise of the Japanese manufacturers, led by Honda, in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The role of the motorcycle shifted in the 1960s, from the tool of a life to a toy of a lifestyle. It became part of an image, of status, a cultural icon for individualism, a prop in Hollywood B-movies.[12]

The motorcycle also became a recreational machine for sport and leisure, a vehicle for carefree youth, not essential transportation for the mature family man or woman, and the Japanese were able to produce modern designs more quickly, more cheaply, and of better quality than their competitors. Their motorbikes were more stylish and more reliable, so the British manufacturers fell behind as mass-market producers.

Honda, which was officially founded in Japan on September 24, 1948, introduced their SOHC inline-four engine CB750 in 1969, which was inexpensive and immediately successful.[citation needed] It established the across-the-frame-four engine configuration as a design with huge potential for power and performance. Shortly after the introduction of the SOHC, Kawasaki demonstrated the potential of the four-stroke four-cylinder engine with the introduction of the KZ900.

Suzuki, Kawasaki and the Yamaha each started producing motorcycles in the 1950s. Meanwhile, the sun was setting on British dominion over the big-displacement motorbike market.
Japanese dominance

The Honda CB750 revolutionized motorcycle marketing and was emblematic of Japanese dominance

The excellence of Japanese motorcycles caused similar effects in all Western markets: many Italian bike firms either went bust or only just managed to survive. As a result BMW's worldwide sales sagged in the 1960s, but came back strongly with the introduction of a completely redesigned "slash-5" series for model year 1970.

From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide, partly as a result of the pioneering work of the East German Daniel Zimmermann (rotary disc valve) and MZ's Walter Kaaden who developed the two-stroke expansion chamber in the 1950s. These ideas were taken up by Suzuki when Ernst Degner, the MZ engineer and rider, defected to the West on 13 September 1961 after retiring from the 125cc Swedish Grand Prix at Kristianstad. Degner, an excellent engineer, immediately joined Suzuki and his knowledge became their technology springboard.

Harley-Davidson in the US at the time suffered from the same problems as the European firms, but its unique product range, American tariff laws and nationalism-driven customer loyalty allowed it to survive. One alleged flaw, however, was retaining the characteristic Harley-Davidson 45° engine vee-angle, which causes excess vibration as well as the loping Harley-Davidson sound.

A factory full fairing was introduced by BMW motorcycle in the R100RS of 1977, the first factory fairing produced in quantity.[37] In 1980, BMW stimulated the "adventure touring" category of motorcycling with its dual-sport model, the R80G/S. In 1988, BMW was the first motorcycle manufacturer to introduce anti-lock-brakes (ABS) on its sporting K100RS-SE and K1 models.[citation needed]
The present

A 2004 Kawasaki ZX-7RR

Today the Japanese manufacturers, Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha dominate the large motorcycle industry, although Harley-Davidson still maintains a high degree of popularity, particularly in the United States.

Recent years have seen a resurgence in the popularity around the world of many other motorcycle brands, including BMW, Triumph and Ducati, and the emergence of Victory as a second successful mass-builder of big-twin American cruisers.

In November 2006, the Dutch company E.V.A. Products BV Holland announced that the first commercially available diesel-powered motorcycle, its Track T-800CDI, achieved production status.[38] The Track T-800CDI uses an 800 cc three-cylinder Daimler Chrysler diesel engine. However, other manufacturers, including Royal Enfield, had been producing diesel-powered bikes since at least 1965.[39]
In the developing world

Motorcycle traffic in Bangkok

There is a large demand for small, cheap motorcycles in the developing world, and many of the firms meeting that demand now also compete in mature markets, such as China's Hongdou which makes a version of Honda's venerable CG125.[40]

Motorcycle taxis are commonplace in the developing world. Scooters, mopeds and motorcycles offer a fast, cheap and risky way around snarled traffic and scarce mass transit, as they can easily squeeze through jams.[41]

The first ethanol flex fuel motorcycle in the world was launched to the Brazilian market by Honda in March 2009, the CG 150 Titan Mix.[42][43][44] During the first eight months after its market launch the CG 150 Titan Mix had captured a 10.6% market share, and ranking second in sales of new motorcycles in the Brazilian market in 2009.[45] In September 2009, Honda launched a second flexible-fuel motorcycle,[46] and by December 2010 both Honda flexible-fuel motorcycles had reached cumulative production of 515,726 units, representing an 18.1% market share of the Brazilian new motorcycle sales in that year.[47][48] As of January 2011 there were four flex-fuel motorcycle models available in the market,[49] and production reached the one million milestone in June 2011.[47][48][50]

Thursday, 13 August 2015


P. Ramlee boleh dianggap sebagai PROFESOR KEHIDUPAN dimana setiap filem garapan beliau mempunyai nilai yang begitu berharga. Peristiwa aneh dan tidak masuk akal yang diterjemahkan dalam filem garapan beliau telahpun berlaku sekarang. Lihat sahaja bagaimana dalam filem Laksamana Do Re Mi, persidangan kerajaan Pasir Dua Butir yang diadakan di bawah pokok. Mungkin di masa itu para penonton menganggap persidangan di bawah pokok itu hanyalah hiburan semata-mata tetapi akhirnya menjadi realiti. 
Satu lagi artikel yang dipetik dari Facebook yang amat menarik dan bermakna berkaitan filem garapan beliau :-

Kalau siapa tengok pakaian 40 penyamun ketika keluar dari gua nak ke bandar. Ada yang memakai pakaian Tok Hakim, koboi,doktor dan lain2.. 

P Ramlee nak beritahu bahawa penyamun di negara kita ada bermacam2.

setuju jika filem2 P.Ramlee dijadikan sebagai rujukan ilmiah. Banyak filem2 beliau menyampaikan mesej2 berbentuk masa hadapan......sindiran yg penuh makna , realiti pada pentas malaysia skrg....Penyamun pun ada ustaz/ustazah utk menjustifikasi hak menyamun. Penyamun pon ada persatuan penyamun.

penyamun pon ada doktor. Penyamun doktor kata "kurang vitamin C"

Orang kaya (sarip dol dan Kemat hassan) boleh berpakat dengan penyamun

Chief penyamun: kamu Momotaro-San, gaji kamu 150 dirham. Bin sarjan bin sarjan gaji kamu 30 dirham sebab byk amik "I O U"......

satu jek respek kat penyamun2.....tu walau dia dikelilingi ngan emas dalam gua tuh....tapi tak curi hasil organisasi.....tetapi masih menerima gaji.....dari ketua penyamun.....kalau tak cukup p cari rezki lain kat luar walaupun menipu....tetapi tidak menipu organisasi dan bos.......

berbeza ngan penyamun zaman sekarang.....walau dapat gaji....tapi masih lagi mencuri khazanah negara...

Sekadar utk renungan, mesej yg sangat mendalam dari karya Allahyarham P. Ramlee.

Sejarah Borneo Airways


Dari Facebook Borneo Oracle

Sebut sahaja Air Asia sudah tentu ramai rakyat Sarawak terbayang akan tambang murah yang disediakan dan apabila disebut Malaysia Airlines System tentu ramai yang terbayang layanan kelas pertama apabila menjadi penumpangnya. Tetapi apabila disebut Borneo Airways mungkin ramai rakyat Sarawak terutama sekali generasi muda Sarawak terpinga-pinga, pernah wujudkah syarikat penerbangan seperti itu di Sarawak? Jawapannya pernah tetapi syarikat penerbangan ini hanya wujud suatu ketika dahulu dan inilah syarikat penerbangan yang menjadi nadi kepada pengangkutan udara ke seluruh Pulau Borneo yang mencakupi Sarawak, Sabah dan Negara Brunei Darussalam. Inilah Sejarah Syarikat Penerbangan Yang Pernah Beroperasi Di Sarawak iaitu Borneo Airways.

Ketika Sarawak, Sabah dan Brunei masih lagi menjadi tanah jajahan Koloni British yang dikenali sebagai pentadbiran British Borneo, pihak British Borneo telah menubuhkan sebuah syarikat penerbangan yang dikenali sebagai Borneo Airways Limited. Syarikat Borneo Airways Limited ini merupakan penghubung kepada ketiga-tiga negara ini kepada dunia luar melalui penerbangan udaranya ke Singapura selain menghubungkan penerbangan udara antara 3 negara jajahan British ini. Borneo Airways Limited beroperasi sekitar tahun 1950an sehingga 1965. Penerbangan Borneo Airways Limited ini bukannya bertindak sebagai penerbangan awam iaitu penerbangan mengangkut penumpang tetapi juga bertindak sebagai kapal kargo yang membawa semua mel udara dan lain-lain lagi. Bagi pegawai-pegawai British yang bertugas di Borneo pada ketika itu sudah tentu banyak mel udara dan kargo untuk keluarga mereka di England jadi kesemua ini akan dihantar ke Singapura sebelum diteruskan untuk penerbangan yang seterusnya daripada Singapura dan ke seluruh dunia pada masa itu.

Sekitar tahun 1962, telah berlaku satu pembelian asset dan saham yang menjadi milikan kepada Sabah Airways Limited iaitu satu syarikat penerbangan yang dipunyai oleh Straits Steamship Company Limited. Dikatakan bahawa Sabah Airways Limited menghadapi kekurangan dana untuk beroperasi jadi memerlukan injeksi modal untuk meneruskan perniagaan mereka jadi Borneo Airways Limited telah membeli saham-saham Sabah Airways Limited dan akhirnya setelah pendaftaran semula perniagaan maka Borneo Airways Limited telah ditukar nama kepada Borneo Airways.

Apabila Sarawak dan Sabah membentuk Gagasan Malaysia bersama-sama dengan Malaya pada tahun 1963, kesemua hal ehwal kargo dan mel udara daripada Sabah dan Sarawak telah diuruskan oleh Malayan Airlines yang menjadi penghubung kepada Sarawak dan Sabah kepada dunia luar. Ketika itu Borneo Airways terus meneruskan perkhidmatan untuk penerbangan tempatan antara Sarawak dan Sabah serta Brunei. Malayan Airways yang kemudiannya bertukar nama kepada Malaysian-Singapore Airlines terus memainkan peranan untuk menghubungkan Kuching dan Kota Kinabalu ke Kuala Lumpur dan Singapura pada masa itu. Pada tahun 1965, Singapura telah keluar daripada Gagasan Malaysia atas sebab-sebab tertentu dan Negara Singapura telah menubuhkan syarikat penerbangan sendiri yang dikenali sebagai Singapore Airlines. Malaysia pula telah menukar nama syarikat penerbangannya daripada Malaysia Singapore Airlines kepada Malaysia Airlines. Dan pada tahun itulah juga kesemua saham-saham dan milikan Borneo Airways dibeli oleh Malaysia Airlines System dan kesemua urusan pengangkutan udara telah didominasi oleh MAS. Sejak daripada itu Borneo Airways terus tidak digunakan lagi dan terkubur.

Sepanjang Borneo Airways beroperasi di Sarawak, Borneo Airways sebenarnya tidak menyediakan kaunter jualan tiket penerbangan sebaliknya sepanjang operasi, ianya telah melantik Sarawak Steamship Limited yang beribu pejabat di Kuching, Sarawak sebagai agen jualan tiket mereka bagi wilayah Sarawak pada waktu itu. Namun setelah perniagaan bertukar ianya tidak lagi menjadi agen jualan tiket sebaliknya Malaysia Singapore Airlines dan seterusnya Malaysia Airlines System menguruskan kesemua urusan perniagaan melalui kaunter mereka sendiri.

Sekitar tahun 1997, “Borneo Airways” sekali lagi ditubuhkan tetapi ianya adalah berlainan entiti perniagaan kerana pada masa itu Royal Brunei Airlines telah memutuskan perniagaan mereka dengan Hornbill Skyways. Namun begitu “Borneo Airways” yang baru setahun beroperasi ini sekali lagi lenyap daripada sejarah penerbangan di Sarawak apabila sekali lagi ianya ditutup setelah beberapa masalah yang tidak dapat dielakkan.

Inilah sekelumit sejarah syarikat penerbangan di Sarawak yang pernah gah mendominasi ruang udara antara Sarawak, Sabah dan Brunei suatu ketika dahulu yang akhirnya terus hilang di dalam lipatan penerbangan di Sarawak mahupun Pulau Borneo sekarang. Semoga sejarah ringkas ini akan dapat membantu generasi Sarawak mengenal suatu nama yang pernah berjasa kepada kita rakyat Sarawak suatu waktu dahulu.

Borneo Oracle Borneo Airways

Wednesday, 12 August 2015

Kisah Sarawak Pernah Diserang Lanun Sulu 1862

Sekitar tahun 1800an, kegiatan lanun di wilayah Sarawak amat berleluasa sekali. Lanun-lanun ini adalah terdiri daripada lanun-lanun Sulu yang berasal dari Selatan Filipina. Kekejaman lanun-lanun ini memang tiada taranya pada zaman itu ditambah dengan kegiatan mereka yang suka merompak kapal-kapal dagang yang berurusan dengan Sarawak dan juga menyerang kampung-kampung di persisiran pantai Sarawak. Lanun-lanun ini bukan sahaja akan merompak dan membakar kampung-kampung malah mereka juga menculik ramai wanita dan budak-budak kecil untuk dijadikan hamba abdi di dalam perahu-perahu mereka. Dikatakan bahawa perahu-perahu lanun ini adalah perahu layar yang bersaiz besar dengan berukuran 40 kaki panjang dan 10 kaki lebar dan mampu untuk memuatkan 100 orang lanun serta dilengkapi peralatan peperangan yang cukup seperti meriam dan sebagainya.
Rajah Brooke tidak menyenangi aktiviti ini kerana ianya telah menganggu keamanan rakyat Sarawak lebih-lebih lagi ianya menganggu gugat perdagangan Sarawak dengan dunia luar. Untuk itu pada November 1862, Rajah Brooke telah mengarahkan anak saudaranya iaitu Rajah Muda, Kapten John Brooke untuk ke Bintulu dan membina sebuah kubu di sana. Maka berangkatlah Rajah Muda dengan Kapalnya “Raibow” yang lengkap dengan segala bentuk peralatan perang seperti meriam yang akan digunakan untuk pertahanan di kubu yang dibina kelak. Disamping itu terdapat sebuah kapal penggempur “Jolly Bachelor” yang diketuai oleh Kapten Hewat juga mengusuli Rajah Brooke menyusuri persisiran pantai Sarawak ke Bintulu. Sewaktu menuju ke Bintulu inilah, Rajah Muda mendapat perkhabaran bahawa pelabuhan Mukah sedang diserang oleh lanun-lanun dan Rajah Muda ini maka tanpa berlengah telah mengarahkan kapal dan anak kapalnya ke Mukah. Sesampai di perairan Mukah, pertembungan kedua-dua kapal dengan perahu lanun pun bermula dan di dalam pertempuran itu armada laut Rajah Muda berjaya menenggelamkan 6 buah perahu lanun dan berjaya menyelamatkan tebusan-tebusan rakyat Sarawak yang dijadikan hamba abdi di perahu-perahu tersebut.
Hakikatnya di dalam Perang Mukah ini, armada Rajah Muda sebenarnya telah mengalami kerosakan yang teruk dan amat sukar untuk dibaiki dalam kadar segera sekiranya peperangan ini berlanjutan. Tetapi masa amat menyebelahi armada Rajah Muda kerana taktik peperangan yang digunapakai oleh Rajah Muda telah berjaya melemahkan angkatan lanun-lanun itu. Mangsa-mangsa penculikan lanun-lanun ini terdiri daripada penduduk persisiran Sarawak, pedagang-pedagang dari China dan Singapura serta 2 orang rakyat Inggeris telah dibebaskan di pelabuhan Mukah. Di dalam peperangan Mukah ini juga seramai lebih daripada 100 orang lanun yang terkorban dan ramai lagi yang mampu meloloskan diri dengan perahu-perahu kecil menuju ke laut luas. Diceritakan bahawa sepanjang berada sebagai hamba abdi di atas perahu lanun-lanun ini, kesemua tahanan telah diseksa dengan begitu zalim sekali. Mereka hanya diberikan minum air tawar yang sudah dicampur dengan air masin laut. Jika mangsa culikan terlalu letih dan tidak terdaya untuk berdayung maka mereka akan diseksa dengan menggosokkan cili merah ke mata mereka agar mereka kepedasan dan terus mendayung. Dan ada juga mangsa penculikan akan dibelasah dengan teruk dan sekiranya menemui ajal akan dibuang terus ke laut.
Inilah sekelumit sejarah tentang Peperangan Mukah yang berlaku diantara armada laut Rajah Muda John Brooke anak saudara Rajah James Brooke dengan lanun Sulu pada November 1862. Peperangan ini telah menandakan satu detik sejarah di dalam sejarah lama pembentukan Negara Sarawak yang lebih stabil dan makmur.

Borneo Oracle ♥ Sarawak’s History

Sources: Sellick, Douglas R. G. (2010). Pirate Outrages: True Stories of Terror on the China Seas. Freemantle Press.

Cerita Buaya Bujang Senang Yang Sangat Besar


Jika disebut Buaya Bujang Senang sudah semestinya seseorang itu akan menggambarkan seekor buaya yang bersaiz besar dan juga terkenal dengan serangannya keatas manusia lebih-lebih lagi di sepanjang Sungai Batang Lupar, Sri Aman, Sarawak. Namun begitu berapa ramaikah yang mengetahui bahawa ada cerita mitos mengenai apa itu buaya keramat bernama bujang senang mengikut cerita-ceriti masyarakat setempat yang mendiami sekitar persisiran Sungai Batang Lupar. Mungkin cerita legenda buaya bujang senang ini adalah cerita sebenar yang kemudian ditokok tambah bagi mengindahkan penceritaan hanya Yang Maha Esa sahaja mengetahui halnya.

Diriwayatkan melalui cerita lisan orang tua-tua di dalam masyarakat Iban yang mendiami kawasan sekitar Sungai Skrang Sarawak, beratus-ratus tahun dahulu ketika adat ngayau atau adat memburu kepala masih lagi diamalkan di dalam masyarakat pribumi telah gah seorang pahlawan Iban yang bernama Lungu. Pahlawan Lungu ini diceritakan sebagai seorang pahlawan yang hebat terutama sekali sewaktu beliau menyertai ekspedisi mengayau kerana menyebut namanya sahaja musuh sudah gerun, Dikatakan bahawa Lungu telah banyak membunuh dan juga memotong kepala musuhnya dan kehebatannya bukan sahaja di kawasan sekitar Sungai Skrang namun sehingga ke Batang Lupar. Diceritakan juga bahawa Lungu ini kebal iaitu tidak lut senjata dan kerana itulah beliau di dalam setiap peperangan dengan mudah membunuh musuhnya dan tiada tercalitpun kesan kecederaan pada dirinya. Perkara akan hal kebalnya pahlawan Lungu ini telah menyebabkan musuh-musuhnya bertekad untuk mencari kelemahannya agar mudah mereka membunuh pahlawan Lungu ini kelak.

Pada satu ketika, maka bertekadlah musuh-musuh Lungu untuk menculik isteri kesayangan Lungu dan diharap dengan menculik isterinya maka dapatlah mereka mengetahui kelemahan pahlawan Lungu. Isteri kesayangan Lungu telah diculik dan disembunyikan di suatu kawasan tidak jauh daripada Sungai Batang Lupar. Apabila mengetahui bahawa isterinya telah diculik maka marahlah Lungu dan beliau dengan seorang diri telah mengejar penculik-penculik isterinya sehingga ke Sungai Batang Lupar. Seketika di dalam penculikan itu, isteri Lungu telah diseksa oleh musuh-musuh Lungu demi mendapatkan rahsia kekebalan Lungu. Dek kerana tidak tertahan kepada keseksaan tersebut, isteri Lungu telah secara tidak sengaja membuka rahsia bagaimana untuk menewaskan Lungu. Setelah mengetahui rahsia kelemahan Lungu, musuh-musuh Lungu dikatakan telah melepaskan isteri Lungu namun apabila isteri Lungu terlerai dari ikatan tali pada tangannya, dimasa beliau berlari maka pihak musuh Lungu telah membaling tombak ke arah badan isteri Lungu maka matilah isterinya yang tidak berdosa itu.

Lungu yang melihat pembunuhan isterinya itu telah naik berang lalu bertarung dengan musuh-musuhnya. Namun sayangnya tanpa Lungu sedari bahawa rahsia kekebalannya telah bocor di tangan musuh-musuhnya. Musuh-musuh Lungu dengan sengaja mengajak Lungu untuk bertarung dekat dengan air sungai kerana dikatakan kekebalan Lungu tidak menjadi sekiranya dia memijak air sungai ataupun bertarung di dalam sungai. Lungu yang sudah marah dan hanya ingin menuntut bela atas kematian isterinya yang dicintai sudah tidak mengindahkan pantangnya lagi dan terus bertarung. Akhirnya musuh-musuh Lungu berjaya membaling tombak dan kemudiannya Lungu tewas, Tidak cukup dengan kematian Lungu yang luka parah akibat ditombak, jasad Lungu juga disula terbalik dan mayat Lungu dan isterinya dibiarkan di tepi Sungai Batang Lupar agar ianya tenggelam dan dibawa oleh arus sungai yang deras apabila air pasang kelak.

Diriwayatkan bahawa mayat kedua-dua pasangan suami isteri iaitu Lungu dan isterinya setelah air pasang telah bertukar menjadi 2 ekor buaya besar. Salah seekor buaya besar ini mempunyai tanda belang putih dibelakangnya dan inilah yang dikenali sebagai Bujang Senang. Mengikut cerita orangtua, buaya Bujang Senang ini telah bersumpah akan menuntut bela atas kematian mereka dengan akan menjadikan setiap generasi yang berkaitan dengan musuh-musuh yang telah membunuh mereka sebagai korban. Sehingga sekarang masyarakat setempat di sekitar Sungai Batang Lupar masih lagi mempercayai bahawa buaya Bujang Senang itu tidak mati kerana dia adalah buaya keramat penghuni Sungai Batang Lupar.

Inilah sekelumit cerita legenda buaya Bujang Senang yang amat terkenal di Sarawak. Ramai manusia yang telah menjadi mangsanya dan kita masih lagi tidak mengetahui samada benar atau tidak bahawa Bujang Senang telahpun terkorban seperti yang diwar-warkan pada tahun 1992. Sama-samalah kita berdoa agar semua mangsa-mangsa korban buaya Bujang Senang yang lepas-lepas tenang disisi Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. Amin.

Borneo Oracle ♥ Cerita Rakyat Sarawak


Ngayau ialah salah satu daripada ekspedisi serangan yang dilakukan dalam Adat Tradisi Suku Kaum Dayak Iban pada suatu masa dahulu. Pada mula nya Ngayau dilakukan atau dimulakan daripada asal usul Suku Kaum Dayak Mengayau, iaitu salah satu daripada suku kuam yang tinggal di Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia.
Erti istilah perkataan Ngayau ialah bermaksud : Satu ekspedisi sekumpulan manusia yang pergi menyerang perkampungan atau rumah panjang orang lain yang mana ia dikenali sebagai “Kayau Serang”. Dan satu lagi jenis serangan yang dilakukan yang mempunyai jumlah pengikut nya yang kecil dan ia dikenali sebagai “Kayau Anak”. Kayau Anak ini ialah satu serangan yang sangat ditakuti oleh semua orang pada zaman dahulu kala.
Maka erti “Kayau Serang” ialah sekumpulan besar manusia berhimpun dan berkumpul menjadikan satu kelompok yang besar setelah dipanggil oleh seorang ketua dan merancang untuk mengatur satu serangan terhadap pihak musuh yang mana mereka adalah datang beramai-ramai daripada rumah panjang yang berlainan untuk menyerang musuh mengikut kata-kata perintah daripada ketua mereka yang dikenali sebagai “Tuai Kayau” atau “Tuai Serang”.
Maka erti “Kayau Anak” ialah satu ekspedisi serangan terhadap musuh yang diatur oleh sekumpulan kecil penduduk yang terdiri daripada lebih kurang dua puluh orang pahlawan perang yang cukup berani menentang pihak musuh atau lebih kecil daripada itu. Mereka pergi menyerang musuh ketika musuh itu dalam perjalanan ke sawah bendang, dalam perjalanan mandi ke sungai, atau sedang mencari paku pakis didalam hutan, atau sedang berburu atau berikan didalam hutan.
Mereka melakukan serangan ini tanpa sebarang perancangan rapi atau boleh dikatakan ia dilakukan secara sepontan akibat hati yang memberontak terhadap pihak musuh. Sebab itulah kita pernah mendengar cerita orang Iban dahulu yang pergi ke sawah bendang mesti dijaga oleh sekumpulan pahlawan yang cukup gagah dan berani mentang musuh kerana takut mereka akan menjadi mangsa serangan  kayau anak. Sila baca dalam cerita “Peturun Iban” dalam babak  “Bangsa Seru” yang mana ia ada menceritakan cucu seorang Pahlawan Iban yang bernama Demong, yang menjadi ketua suku kaum Iban di kawasan Batang Paku, Betong yang dikenali dengan nama Belaki,  telah mati kena serang kayau anak oleh suku kaum Seru ketika mereka sedang mengerjakan sawah bendang di kawasan yang dikenali sebagai Tanjung Kundong, Batang Paku, Betong. Turut mati bersama nya ialah isterinya yang bernama Beremas (adek kepada seorang Ketua Serang Iban yang bernama Uyut atau dikenali dengan panggilan Bedilang Besi). Bedilang dalam bahasa Iban ialah satu tempat dimana orang Iban menyalai kepala musuh yang telah dipenggal dirumah panjang pada masa dahulu. Juga turut terbunuh ialah ipar Belaki yang bernama Kadir.
Tetapi suku kaum Seru yang telah melakukan kayau anak itu Berjaya dikejar dan ditawan oleh pahlawan mereka yang bernama Jimbai, Umar, Jelema dan Buma. Kaum Seru itu mati dibunoh ketika mereka sedang berehat sambil menunggu rakan mereka memanjat pokok keranji setelah melarikan diri sambil membawa bersama mereka kepala Belaki yang telah dipenggal. Kaum Seru itu dibunoh di kawasan yang dikenali sebagai Bukit Tampak Panas diantara benua Batang Paku dan Batang Rimbas.
Semasa eksepedisi ngayau ini pahlawan yang telah berjaya mengalahkan musuh mereka mestilah memenggal kepala musuh yang telah mereka bunuh sebagai satu tanda keberanian mereka dalam serangan tersebut. Mereka juga akan merampas semua harta benda musuh yang mereka suka, sesuka hati dan juga menangkap semua musuh yang masih hidup untuk dibawa pulang ke kampung halaman supaya musuh itu nanti akan dijadikan sebagai hamba abadi mereka. Ada juga mereka yang berjaya mengalahkan musuh ini menangkap anak putri Ketua Kayau musuh dan dijadikan sebagai isteri mereka.
Sebab utama mereka mesti memenggal kepala musuh dan membawa nya balik ke rumah panjang mereka ialah sebagai satu tanda keberanian, ketangkasan dan kegagahan mereka ketika menentang pihak musuh.semasa eksepidi ngayau itu tadi. Dan mereka yang telah berjaya memenggal kepala musuh itu tadi atau berjaya membunuh musuh mereka dikenali oleh suku kuam Dayak Iban sebagai “Bedengah” dan juga mereka ini dikenali oleh orang ramai sebagai “Bujang Berani” atau sama erti dengan pahlawan oleh suku kaum Melayu.
Cerita mengenai Ngayau ini pernah ditulis dalam buku oleh Karya Bock dalam tahun 1881 yang berjudul “The Head Hunters Of Borneo” yang menceritakan suku kaum Dayak Iban ialah satu suku kaum yang tinggal di kepulauan Borneo yang dikenali ramai kerana berani berkorban nyawa hingga ke titisan darah yang terakhir kerana hendak mendapatkan seberapa banyak kepala musuh yang berjaya dipenggal yang berjaya ditawan ketika mereka pergi Ngayau, yang mana ia boleh menaikkan nama mereka sebagai orang yang dikenali ramai dan dilantik sebagai seorang ketua dikalangan kaum mereka.
Sebab lain Ngayau ini dilakukan ialah kerana berakhir nya tempoh berkabung oleh suku kaum Dayak Iban sewaktu masa dahulu di rumah panjang berkenaan. Sebelum tempoh berkabung itu tamat tempoh, maka semua suku sakat orang yang telah meninggal dunia itu akan memanggil semua penghuni di rumah panjang mereka untuk bermesyuarat membincangkan bagaimana mereka hendak pergi menamatkan tempoh berkabung itu ke kawasan yang lain, yang lebih jauh supaya ia lebih bersejarah bagi mereka.
Mengikut adat tradisi suku kaum Dayak Iban dahulu mereka yang pergi itu ialah bertujuan untuk “Ngayau Anak” mendapatkan kepala manusia untuk menamatkan tempoh mereka berkabung di rumah panjang berkenaan sebagai ganti kepada ahli keluarga mereka yang telah meninggal dunia itu. Setelah mereka berjaya mendapatkan kepala manusia itu mereka akan balik secepat mungkin dan apabila mereka telah sampai di rumah panjang, mereka akan disambut dengan meriah sekali yang mana ia dinamakan sebagai “Mangka Ka Selaing” yang bermaksud berdoa kesyukuran.
Setiba nya mereka di pintu masuk utama rumah panjang berkenaan, mereka akan berteriak sekuat-kuat hati sebagai satu amaran menandakan mereka telah sampai, dan ia juga akan dibalas dengan pukulan gong daripada penduduk rumah panjang tersebut. Ketibaan mereka akan disambut seperti mana adat menerima ketibaan seorang pahlawan perang. Kepala manusia yang dibawa balik itu akan disambut oleh seorang perempuan yang terpilih atau isteri pahlawan itu sendiri menggunakan nyiru yang digunakan sebagai tampi oleh mereka. Atau ia akan disambut menggunakan satu pinggan seramik yang besar sais nya, diseliputi menggunakan satu kain tenunan suku kaum Dayak Iban yang dikenali seabagai “Pua Kumbu” iaitu sejenis kain yang dibuat khas secara tradisi oleh suku kaum Dayak Iban untuk sesuatu upacara yang besar-besaran. Ia juga disambut mengunakan sampi serapah bahasa yang simbolik digunakan oleh suku kaum Dayak Iban untuk menyambut kepala musuh.
Setelah kepala musuh itu dibawa masuk ke dalam rumah panjang barulah orang lain di rumah panjang itu secara bergilir-gilir membawa bersama mereka kepala musuh itu dengan cara tarian yang simbolik sepanjang rumah panjang tersebut yang dikenali sebagai “Naku Antu Pala” sehinggalah kepala musuh itu sampai ditengah-tengah ruang tamu orang yang berkabung itu. Selepas kepala musuh itu tiba di ruang tamu orang yang berkabung itu baru upacara berkabung tersebut ditamatkan.
Mengikut adat tradisi suku kaum Dayak Iban dahulu sepanjang tempoh berkabung tersebut ahli keluarga si mati tidak dibenarkan memotong rambut, penduduk di rumah panjang tersebut tidak boleh mengadakan sebarang upacara keramaian, tiada pelawat dari rumah panjang lain dibenarkan bertandang ke rumah panjang mereka dan banyak lagi pantang larang lain yang menandakan suasana sedih dan pilu akibat kematian itu tadi.
Selesai sehaja upacara berkabung itu tadi ditamatkan, maka kepala musuh itu akan dibawa ke ruang tamu ketua di rumah panjang berkenaan. Kepala musuh itu akan ditempatkan di tempat khas yang dikenali sebagai”Bedilang Tampun”, ia itu tempat dimana kepala musuh itu akan disalai didalam rumah panjang tersebut. Kepala musuh itu akan menjadi sebagai tanda harta pusaka pahlawan perang di rumah panjang berkenaan. Selepas itu barulah orang yang tinggal di rumah panjang itu mengadakan uapacara keramaian yang dinamakan “Gawai Enchaboh Arong”, iaitu sebagai tanda kesyukuran keatas kemenangan pahlawan perang menewaskan musuh mereka.
Maka atas sebab keberanian, kekuatan, ketangkasan dan pengorbanan jiwa, maka mulailah suku kaum Dayak Iban pada zaman dahulu berasa bangga dan terus melakukan espedisi serang “Ngayau” untuk membalas dendam keatas kematian ahli keluarga mereka yang terkorban di tangan pihak musuh tanpa sebarang sebab yang tidak diketahui. Mereka juga melakaukan “Ngayau” ini kerana hendak merampas tanah pusaka orang lain, berebut kuasa untuk menjadi pemimpin, dan juga hendak mengambil kesempatan merampas harta benda orang lain. Maka sesiapa yang berjaya menewaskan pihak lawan dalam ekspidisi “Ngayau” ini akan mendai terkenal, terbilang sebagai pahlawan perang dan dihormati ramai di kawasan berkenaan.
Lelaki itu tadi apabila dia telah dikenali ramai sebagai pahlawan perang setelah dia balik daripada ekspedisi “Ngayau”, maka dia akan membuat sesuatu tanda di tubuh badan nya yang dikenali sebagai tattoo badan yang becorak hitam bemotifkan manusia, binatang atau tumbuh-tumbuhan. Tatto ini dikenali sebagai “Ukir” atau”Kelingai”. Mereka juga boleh menggunakan topi yang dikenali sebagai “Ketapu” atau “Selapok Betunjang” yang mana topi tersebut akan dikepilkan dengan bulu burung merak atau kenyalang. Mereka juga boleh menggunakan baju yang diperbuat daripada kulit binatang buas seperti harimau dahan, harimau bintang dan beruang yang dikenali sebagai “Gagong”.
Pahlawan perang yang hendak pergi mengikuti ekspedisi “Ngayau” ini mestilah ada memiliki petanda yang baik melalui mimpi dan juga bunyi burong yang mereka pecayai boleh membantu mereka menentukan nasib sebelum mereka pergi “Ngayau”.atau membuat perahu besar untuk espedisi berkenaan. Dalam semua perkara yang mereka hendak lakukan akan didahului dengan upacara “Miring”, iaitu satu upacara sembahan kepada tuhan yang mereka percayai boleh membantu mereka semasa melakukan serangan “Ngayau” itu nanti. “Miring” mesti dilakukan kerana mereka percaya bahawa dewa atau “Tua” mereka akan pergi bersama dalam serangan itu dan menolong mereka menjayakan serangan tersebut.
Mengikut buku yang ditulis seorang pengarang novel yang bernama Miller dalam tahun 1946 yang berjudul “Black Borneo”. Dia ada mengatakan bahawa semua pahlawan perang suku kaum Dayak Iban yang pergi “Ngayau” itu ada mempunyai kekuatan, ketangkasan dan keberanian yang luar biasa daripada manusia biasa yang lain. Dan apa yang berlaku ke atas pahlawan tersebut ialah mereka mempunyai kuasa yang luar biasa, yang tidak diketahui dari mana punca nya ketika berlawan dengan pihak musuh, lebih-lebih lagi apabila mereka telah berjaya memenggal kepala musuh mereka.
Dan juga mengikut kepercayaan suku kaum Dayak Iban, tengkorak manusia yang mati dibunuh itu mempunyaui banyak kuasa yang boleh membantu mereka pada zaman dahulu sekira nya ia dijaga dengan baik dan dihormati oleh pemilik nya. Tengkorak manusia itu juga dikenali sebagai “Antu Pala” boleh digunakan untuk merawat pesakit yang sakit tenat apabila diadakan upacara “Gawai Burong”, iaitu upacara keramaian untuk memohon restu mengubat pesakit secara tradisional menggunakan kuasa roh orang yang telah di penggal kepala tersebut. “Antu Pala” juga boleh digunakan oleh petani untuk memohon hujan turun ketika musim kemarau panjang yang kering kontang. Dan apabila kuasa pada “Antu Pala” itu telah habis atau berkurangan, maka sebab itulah salah satu daripada punca nya mengapa mereka pergi “Ngayau” semula untuk mendapatkan ganti supaya mereka berkekalan memilki “Antu Pala” yang boleh membantu hidup mereka sepanjang masa. “Antu Pala” juag boleh digunakan untuk menjaga rumah atau sawah daripada dibinasakan oleh binatang liar sekira nya ada orang yang berilmu boleh  menjadikan kuasa nya ujud seperti dikehendaki oleh pemiliki itu.
Mengikut buku yang ditulis Mc Kinley dalam tahun 1976, dia ada bertanyakan kenapa suku kaum Dayak Iban apabila mereka selamat balik daripada ekspidisi. “Ngayau” zaman dahulu mesti membawa balik kepala musuh yang telah dipenggal dan tidak membawa bahagian badan yang lain sebagai tanda keberanian mereka sekalu seorang pahlawan perang. Dan dalam pendapat beliau bahawa suku kaum Dayak Iban merasa bangga apabila bailik daripada eksepidisi “Ngayau” dan membawa bersama mereka kepala musuh yang telah berjaya dibunuh sebagai tanda kemenangan kerana suku kaum Dayak Iban percaya bahawa kepala musuh itu adalah sama seperti sebatang tubuh badan musuh berkenaan. Kerana daripada gaya rupa muka manusia di kepala tersebut kita boleh dengan mudah mengenali siapakah orang itu dan juga ia membolehkan mereka mengetahui siapakah suku sakat mangsa pembunuhan semasa serangan “Ngayau” itu.
Dalam ekspedisi “Ngayau”, semua pahlawan perang suiku kaum Dayak Iban boleh menunjukkan keberanian, kekuatan dan juga ketangkasan mereka ketika menyerang pihak musuh, yang membolehkan mereka berusaha mendapatkan gelaran sebagai “Bujang Berani”. Bujang Berani juga adalah menjadi rebutan dikalangan semua gadis pada zaman dahulu untuk dijadikan sebagai suami atau mereka juga dengan mudah akan diterima oleh Ketuai Kayau, atau orang kenamaan yang kaya raya untuk menjadi menantu ketika mereka mencari calon menantu ketika upacara meminang dilakukan.
Mengikut cerita orang dahulu kala iaitu “Ngayau” ini dimulakan oleh seorang dewa suku kaum Dayak Iban yang bernama Keling yang berasal dari benua Panggau Libau Lendat Di Biau Takang Isang dimana dia mendapat gelaran  Keling Gerasi Nading, Bujang Berani Kempang, Maioh Rambang. Dan perbuatan memenggal kepala musuh itu pada mula nya dilakukan oleh seorang dewa yang bernama Lang Sengalang Burong ketika mereka berperang menentang suku kaum Inggeris di lautan belantara. Maka kerana terlalu marah ketika menyertai ekspedisi “Ngayau” itu tiba-tiba Lang Sengalang Burong terus memotong kesemua bangkai musuh yang telah berjaya dibunuh, dan seterusnya dipotong nya dibahagian kepala yang mana ia memisahkan kepala dan badan tersebut,dan terus dibawa nya kesemua kepala musuh itu balik ke rumah panjang mereka di Gelong Batu Nakong sebagai bukti bahawa dia adalah “Bujang Berani” atau seorang pahlawan perang sebenar.